Taxonomy of the Felidae

List of species

selected literature

and some internet links




© Dr. David Pujolar 2007-2018

Taxonomic conventions*:





                    Species (common name with link to the IUCN-Cat Specialist Group Species Accounts)

Subspecies (big cats only)


* Based on: Johnson et al. (2006): The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: a Genetic Assessment; Science 311(5757): 73-77 (see pictures S11 and S12 from Supporting Online Material) corrected with the last results about Felis silvestris (Driscoll et al. (2007): The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication; Science 317 (5837): 519-523) and Neofelis diardi (Buckley-Beason, et al. (2006): Molecular Evidence for Species-Level Distinctions in Clouded Leopards; Current Biology 16(23): 2371-2376). For big cats subspecies, see the selected bibliography for each species. For the other Felidae species, the molecular basis for the characterization of subspecies is still very limited.



·        Bay Cat Lineage


Pardofelis badia (bay cat, Bornean red cat)

Pardofelis marmorata  (marbled cat)

Pardofelis temminckii (Asiatic golden cat, Temminck's cat)

·        Caracal Lineage


Caracal aurata (African golden cat)

Caracal caracal (caracal, desert lynx)

Caracal serval (serval)

·        Domestic Cat Lineage


Felis chaus (jungle cat, swamp cat)

Felis margarita (sand cat)
Felis nigripes (
black-footed cat

Felis silvestris (wild cat). Also includes as subspecies (see Driscoll, C. A. et al. (2007)) the European wild cat (Felis silvestris silvestris), the Central Asian wild cat (Felis silvestris ornata), the Near Eastern wild cat (Felis silvestris lybica), the sub-Saharian African wildcat (Felis silvestris cafra), the Chinese wild cat (Felis silvestris bieti) and the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus).


·        Leopard Cat Lineage


Otocolobus manul (Pallas's cat, manul)


Prionailurus bengalensis (leopard cat, Bengal cat). Also includes as subspecies the Iriomote cat (Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis).

Prionailurus planiceps (flat-headed cat)
Prionailurus rubiginosus 
rusty-spotted cat
Prionailurus viverrinus 
fishing cat

·        Lynx Lineage


Lynx canadensis (Canada lynx, North American lynx)
Lynx lynx
Eurasian lynx
Lynx pardinus
Iberian lynx, Spanish lynx
Lynx rufus 

·        Ocelot Lineage


Leopardus colocolo (Pampas cat). Possible subspecies are the Argentinean pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo pajeros) and the Pantanal cat (Leopardus colocolo braccatus).

Leopardus geoffroyi (Geoffroy´s cat)
Leopardus guigna
kodkod, Chilean cat

Leopardus jacobita (Andean mountain cat). According the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature L. jacobita is the correct name and not L. jacobitus.

Leopardus pardalis (ocelot)
Leopardus tigrinus
oncilla, little spotted cat, Northern tiger cat

Leopardus guttulus (Southern tigrina)
Leopardus wiedii

·        Puma Lineage


Acinonyx jubatus (cheetah)

Taxonomy of the subspecies is not yet well established. Molecular studies performed on samples with limited representation, or non-existent, of some alleged subspecies (see Charruau P. et al. (2011)). Possible subspecies are*:


Acinonyx jubatus jubatus

Acinonyx jubatus soemmeringii

Acinonyx jubatus venaticus

* Other alleged subspecies (A. j. hecki, A. j. raineyi) need to be confirmed with adequate molecular analysis.


Puma concolor (puma, mountain lion, cougar)

Subspecies are (according to Culver, M. et al. (2000)):


Puma concolor concolor

Puma concolor cougar

Puma concolor puma

Puma concolor costaricencis

Puma concolor cabrerae
Puma concolor anthonyi
(preferred expression to the term Puma concolor capricornensis, according the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature)


Puma yagouaroundi (jaguarundi, otter cat)



·        Panthera Lineage


Neofelis diardi (Sundaland clouded leopard, Diard’s clouded leopard)

Subspecies are (according to Wilting, A. et al. (2007)): 


Neofelis diardi borneensis

Neofelis diardi sumatrae


Neofelis nebulosa (clouded leopard)

Subspecies are (according to Christiansen, P. (2008)):


Neofelis nebulosa macrosceloides

Neofelis nebulosa nebulosa


Panthera leo (lion)

Taxonomy of the subspecies is not yet well established. Three geographic groups based on the recent evolutionary history (see Barnett, R. et al. (2006)). Thus, possible subspecies are:


Panthera leo leo

Panthera leo persica

Panthera leo senegalensis


Panthera onca (jaguar)

Only molecular evidence for geographical population differentiation, subspecies-level distinctions are dubious (see Eizirik, E. et al. (2001): Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca, Mammalia, Felidae). Molecular Ecology 10(1): 65-79). According morphometric analysis (see Hoogesteijn, R. and E. Mondolfi (1996)) can be considered the following ones:


Panthera onca hernandesii

Panthera onca onca

Panthera onca palustris (preferred expression to the term Panthera onca paraguensis, according the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature)

Panthera pardus 
(leopard, panther)

Subspecies are (according to Uphyrkina, O. et al. (2001)):


Panthera pardus pardus

Panthera pardus nimr

Panthera pardus saxicolor

Panthera pardus fusca

Panthera pardus kotiya

Panthera pardus delacouri

Panthera pardus japonensis

Panthera pardus orientalis

Panthera pardus melas

Panthera tigris

Subspecies are (according to Luo, S. J. et al. (2004))*:


Panthera tigris tigris

Panthera tigris altaica

Panthera tigris amoyensis

Panthera tigris corbetti

Panthera tigris jacksoni

Panthera tigris sumatrae

* Panthera tigris virgata (extinct) is synonymous with Panthera tigris altaica, see Driscoll, C. A. et al. (2009). Therefore, trinomial P. t. virgata should be preferred to P. t. altaica according the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Alleged subspecies P. t. sondaica (extinct) and P. t. balica (extinct) not identified with molecular analysis. Probably are synonymous with P. t. sumatrae. If so, trinomial P. t. sondaica should be preferred to P. t. sumatrae according the rules of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.


Panthera uncia (snow leopard, ounce)

No molecular evidence for subspecies-level distinctions.



  • General References


- Heptner, V. G. and A. A. Sludskii (1992): Mammals of the Soviet Union, volume 2 part 2. Carnivora (hyaenas and cats). E. J. Brill Publishing Company. Leiden: The Netherlands. (Translation from the Russian edition, published in 1972 by Vysshaya Shkola Publishers).


- Macdonald, D. and A. Loveridge (2010): The Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids. Oxford University Press. New York: United States of America.


- Nowell, K. and P. Jackson (1996): Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Gland: Switzerland.


- Seidensticker, J. and S. Lumpkin (2004): Cats in Question: The Smithsonian Answer Book. Smithsonian books. Washington: United States of America.


- Sunquist, M. and F. Sunquist (2002): Wild Cats of the World. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago: United States of America.


- Turner, A. and M. Antón (1997): The Big Cats and Their Fossil Relatives. An Illustrated Guide to Their Evolution and Natural History. Columbia University Press. New York: United States of America.


- Wilson, D. E. and D. M. Reeder (eds.) (2005): Mammal Species of the World 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press.


  • Taxonomy of the Felidae


- Christiansen, P. (2007): Canine morphology in the larger Felidae: implications for feeding ecology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 91(4): 573-592


- Davis, B., Li, G. and W. Murphy (2010): Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56(1): 64-76.


- Driscoll, C., M. Menotti-Raymond, A. L. Roca, K. Hupe, W. E. Johnson, E. Geffen, E. Harley, M. Delibes, D. Pontier, A. C. Kitchener, N. Yamaguchi, S. J. O'Brien and D.Macdonald (2007): The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication. Science 317 (5837): 519-523.


- Johnson, W. E., E. Eizirik, J. Pecon-Slattery, W. J. Murphy, A. Antunes, E.Teeling and S. J. O'Brien (2006): The Late Miocene Radiation of Modern Felidae: a Genetic Assessment. Science 311(5757): 73-77 (see also pictures S11 and S12 from the Supporting Online Material to this article).


- Kim, J. H., A. Antunes, S. J. Luo, J. Menninger, W. G. Nash, S. J. O'Brien and W. E. Johnson (2006): Evolutionary analysis of a large mtDNA translocation (numt) into the nuclear genome of the Panthera genus species. Gene 366(2): 292-302.


- Luo, S. J., W. E. Johnson, V. A. David, M. Menotti-Raymond, R. Stanyon, Q. X. Cai,T. Beck, N. Yuhki, J. Pecon-Slattery, J.L.D. Smith and S. J. O'Brien (2007): Development of Y Chromosome Intraspecific Polymorphic Markers in the Felidae. Journal of Heridity 98(5): 400-413.


- Mattern, M. Y. and D. A. McLennan (2000): Phylogeny and Speciation of Felids. Cladistics 16(2) 232-253.


- Navascués, M., F. Depaulis and B. C. Emerson (2010): Combining contemporary and ancient DNA in population genetic and phylogeographical studies. Molecular Ecology Resources 10(5) 760-772.


- O'Brien S. J. and W. E. Johnson (2005): Big Cat Genomics. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 6: 407-429.


O'Brien S. J., J. L. Troyer, M. Roelke, L. Marker and J. Pecon-Slattery (2006): Plagues and adaptation: Lessons from the Felidae models for SARS and AIDS Big Cat Genomics. Biological Conservation 131(2): 255-267.


Sakamoto M., G. T. Lloyd and M. J. Benton (2010): Phylogenetically structured variance in felid bite force: the role of phylogeny in the evolution of biting performance. Biological Conservation 23(3): 463-478.


- Turner, A. and H. O’ Regan (2002): The assessment of size in fossil felidae. Estudios Geológicos 58(1-2): 45-54.


 - Yu, L. and Y. P. Zhang (2005):  Phylogenetic studies of pantherine cats (Felidae) based on multiple genes, with novel application of nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 to carnivores.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35(2): 483-495.


·        Acinonyx jubatus


- Bissett, C. and R.T. F. Bernard (2007): Habitat selection and feeding ecology of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in thicket vegetation: Is the cheetah a savanna specialist? Journal of Zoology 271(3): 310-317.


- Caro, A. T. (1994): Cheetahs of the Serengeti Plains. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago: United States of America.


- Charruau, P., C. Fernandes, P. Orozco-terWengel, J. Peters, L. Hunter, H. Ziaie, A. Jourabchian, H. Jowkar, G. Schaller, S. Ostrowski, P. Vercammen, T. Grange, C. Schlötterer, A. Kotze, E. M. Geigl, C. Walzer and P. A. Burger (2011): Phylogeography, genetic structure and population divergence time of cheetahs in Africa and Asia: evidence for long-term geographic isolates. Molecular Ecology. Early View (doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04986.x).


- Christiansen, P. and J. H. Mazak (2009): A primitive Late Pliocene cheetah, and evolution of the cheetah lineage. PNAS 106(2): 512-515.


- Farhadinia, M. and M. R. Hemami (2010): Prey selection by the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah in central Iran. Journal of Natural History 44(19&20): 1239-1249.


- Hayward, M.W., M. Hofmeyr, J. O' Brien and G. I. H. Kerley (2006): Prey preferences of the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) (Felidae: Carnivora): morphological limitations or the need to capture rapidly consumable prey before kleptoparasites arrive? Journal of Zoology 270(4): 615-627.


- Marker, L. L. and A. J. Dickman (2003): Morphology, Physical Condition and Growth of the Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). Journal of Mammalogy 84(3): 840-850.


- Menotti-Raymond, M. and S. J. O’Brien (1993): Dating the bottleneck of the African cheetah. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90(8): 3172-3176.


·        Neofelis nebulosa and Neofelis diardi


- Buckley-Beason, V. A., W. E. Johnson, W. G. Nash, R. Stanyon, J. C. Menninger, C. A. Driscoll, J. G. Howard, M. Bush, J. E. Page, M. E. Roelke, G. Stone, P. P. Martelli, C. Wen, L. Ling, R. K. Duraisingam, P. V. Lam and S. J. O’Brien (2006): Molecular Evidence for Species-Level Distinctions in Clouded Leopards. Current Biology 16(23): 2371-2376.


- Christiansen, P. (2008): Species distinction and evolutionary differences in the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) and Diard's clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi). Journal of Mammalogy 89(6): 1435-1446.


- Kitchener, A. C., M. A. Beaumont and D. Richardson (2006): Geographical Variation in the Clouded Leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, reveals Two Species. Current Biology 16(23): 2377-2383.


- Wilting, A., F. Fisher, S. Abu Bakar and K. E. Linsenmair (2006): Clouded leopards, the secretive top-carnivore of South-East Asian rainforests: their distribution, status and conservation needs in Sabah, Malaysia.  BMC Ecology 6(16): 1-13.


- Wilting, A., V. A. Buckley-Beason, H. Feldhaar, J. Gadau, S. J. O'Brien and K. E. Linsenmair (2007): Clouded leopard phylogeny revisited: support for species recognition and population division between Borneo and Sumatra. Frontiers in Zoology 4(15): 1-10. 


- Wu, X., T. Zheng, Z. Jiang and L. Wei (2007): The mitochondrial genome structure of the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Genome 50(2): 252-257.


·        Panthera leo


- Antunes A., J. L. Troyer, M. E. Roelke, J. Pecon-Slattery, C. Packer, C. Winterbach, H. Winterbach, G. Hemson, L. Frank, P. Stander, L. Siefert, M. Driciru, P. J. Funston, K. A. Alexander, K. C. Prager, G. Mills, D. Wildt, M. Bush, S. J. O'Brien and W. E. Johnson (2008): The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Lion Panthera leo Revealed by Host and Viral Population Genomics PLoS Genetics 4(11): 1-11.


- Barnett, R., B. Shapiro, I. Barne, S. Y. W. Ho, J. Burger, N. Yamaguchi, T. F. G. Higham, H. T. Wheeler, W. Rosendahl, A. V. Sher, M. Sotnikova, T. Kuznetsova, G. F. Baryshnikov, L. D. Martin, C. R. Harington, J. A. Burns and A. Cooper (2009): Phylogeography of lions (Panthera leo ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity. Molecular Ecology 18(8): 1668-1677.


- Barnett, R., N. Yamaguchi, I. Barnes and A. Cooper (2006): The Origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo). Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273(1598): 2119-2125.


- Burger, J., W. Rosendahl, O.  Loreille, H. Hemmer, T. Eriksson, A. Götherström, J. Hiller, M. Collins, T. Wess and K. W. Alt (2004): Molecular phylogeny of extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30(3): 841-849.


- De Boer, W. F., M. J. P. Vis, H.J. De Knegt, C. Rowles, E. M. Kohi, F. van Langevelde, M. Peel, Y. Pretorius, A. K. Skidmore, R. Slotow, S. E. van Wieren and H. H. T. Prins (2010): Spatial distribution of lion kills determined by the water dependency of prey species. Journal of Mammalogy 91(5):1280–1286.


- Dubach, J., B. D. Patterson, M. B. Briggs, K. Venzke, J. Flamand, P. Stander, L. Scheepers and R. W. Kays (2005): Molecular genetic variation across the southern and eastern geographic ranges of the african lion, Panthera leo. Conservation Genetics 6(1): 15-24.


- Hayward, M. W. and G. I. H. Kerley (2005): Prey preferences of the lion (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoology 267(3): 309-322.


- Loveridge, A. L., J. E. Hunt, F. Murindagomo and D. W. Macdonald (2006): Influence of drought on predation of elephant (Loxodonta africana) calves by lions (Panthera leo) in an African wooded savannah. Journal of Zoology 190(3): 365-373.


- Power, R. J. and R. X. Shem (2009): Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park, Botswana (Panthera leo). African Zoology 44(1): 36-44.


- Schaller, G. B. (1972): Serengeti Lion: A Study of Predatory-Prey Relations. The Chicago University Press. Chicago: United States of America.


- Smuts, G. L., G. A. Robinson and I. J. Whyte (1980): Comparative growth of wild male and female lions (Panthera leo). Journal of Zoology 190(3): 365-373.


- Yamaguchi, N., A.  Cooper, L. Werdelin and D. W. Macdonald (2004): Evolution of the mane and group-living in the lion (Panthera leo): a review. Journal of Zoology 263(4): 329-342.


·        Panthera onca


- Azevedo, F. C. C. and D. L. Murray (2007): Spatial organization and food habits of jaguars (Panthera onca) in a floodplain forest. Biological Conservation 137(3): 391-402.


- Cavalcanti,S. and E. M. Gese (2009): Spatial Ecology and Social Interactions of Jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy 90(4): 935-945.


- Cavalcanti,S. and E. M. Gese (2010): Kill rates and predation patterns of jaguars (Panthera onca) in the southern Pantanal, Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy 91(3): 722-736.


- Conde, D. A, F. Colchero, H. Zarza, N. L. Christensen Jr., J. O. Sexton, C. Manterola, C. Chávez, A. Rivera, D. Azuara and G. Ceballos (2010): Sex matters: Modeling male and female habitat differences for jaguar conservation. Biological Conservation 143(9): 1980-1988.


- Crawshaw Jr, P. G. and H. B. Quigley (1991): Jaguar spacing, activity and habitat use in a seasonally flooded environment in Brazil. Journal of Zoology 223(3): 357-370.


- Eizirik, E.; J. Kim, M. Menotti-Raymond, P. G. Jr. Crawshaw, S. J. O’Brien and W. E. Johnson (2001): Phylogeography, population history and conservation genetics of jaguars (Panthera onca, Mammalia, Felidae). Molecular Ecology 10(1): 65-79.


- Hoogesteijn, R. and E. Mondolfi (1993): The Jaguar. Armitano editores. Caracas: Venezuela. (Also, there is a Spanish edition from the same publisher).


- Hoogesteijn, R. and E. Mondolfi (1996): Body and skull measurements in four jaguar populations and observations on their prey base. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 39(6): 195-219.


- Larson, S. E. (1997): Taxonomic Re-Evaluation of the Jaguar. Zoo Biology 16(2): 107-120.


- Medellín, R. A., C. Equihua, C.L. Chetkiewicz, P. G. Jr Crawshaw, A. Rabinowitz, K. H. Redford, J. G. Robinson, E. W. Sanderson and A. B. Taber (comps.) (2002): El jaguar en el nuevo milenio. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Wildlife Conservation Fund, Fondo de Cultura Económica. México: México.


- Ruiz-García, M., E. Payán, A. Murillo, A. and D. Álvarez (2006): DNA microsatellite characterization of the jaguar (Panthera onca) in Colombia. Genes & Genetic Systems 81(2): 115-127.


- Weckel, M., W. Giuliano and S. Silver (2006): Jaguar (Panthera onca) feeding ecology: distribution of predator and prey through time and space. Journal of Zoology 270(1): 25-30.


·        Panthera pardus


Bailey, T. N. (1993): The African Leopard. Ecology and Behaviour of a Solitary Felid. Columbia University Press. New York: United States of America.


- Balme, G. A.; R. Slotow and L. T. B. Hunter (2009): Impact of conservation interventions on the dynamics and persistence of a persecuted leopard (Panthera pardus) population. Biological Conservation 142(11): 2681-2690.


- Bothma, J. Du P. and E. A. N. le Riche (1984): Aspects of the Ecology and the Behaviour of the leopard Panthera pardus in the Kalahari Desert. Koedoe (supplement) 27(1): 259-279.


- D’Amour, D. E.; G. Hohmann and B. Fruth (2006): Evidence of Leopard Predation on Bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia Primatologica 77(3): 212-217.


- Gavashelishvili, A. and V. Lukarevskiy (2008): Modelling the habitat requirements of leopard Panthera pardus in west and central Asia. Journal of Applied Ecology 45(2): 579-588.


- Hayward, M.W., P. Henschel, J. O' Brien, M. Hofmeyr, G. Balme and G. I. H. Kerley (2006): Prey preferences of the leopard (Panthera pardus). Journal of Zoology 270(2): 298-313.


- Henschel, P., K. A. Abernethy and L. J. T. White (2005): Leopard food habits in the Lopé National Park, Gabon, Central Africa. African Journal of Ecology 43(1): 21-28.


- Khorozyan, I. G.; G. F. Baryshnikov and A. V. Abramov (2006): Taxonomic status of the leopard, Panthera pardus (Carnivora, Felidae) in the Caucasus and adjacent areas. Russian Journal of Theriology 5(1): 41-52.


- Khorozyan, I. G. and A. V. Abramov (2007): The Leopard, Panthera pardus, (Carnivora, Felidae) and its resilience to human pressure in the Caucasus. Zoology in the Middle East 41: 11-24


- Meijaard, E. (2004): Biogeographic history of the Javan leopard Panthera pardus based on a craniometric analysis. Journal of Mammalogy 85(2): 302-310.


- Miththapala, S., J. Seidensticker and S. J. O’Brien (1996): Phylogeographic Subspecies Recognition in Leopards (Panthera pardus): Molecular Genetic Variation. Conservation Biology 10(4): 1115-1132.


- Odden, M. and P. Wegge (2009): Kill rates and food consumption of leopards in Bardia National Park, Nepal. Acta Theriologica 54(1): 23-30.


- Uphyrkina, O., W. E. Johnson, H. Quigley, D. Miquelle, L. Marker, M. Bush and S. J. O’Brien (2001): Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, (Panthera pardus). Molecular Ecology 10(11): 2617-2633.


·        Panthera tigris


- Carroll, C. and D. G. Miquelle (2006): Spatial viability analysis of Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica in the Russian Far East: the role of protected areas and landscape matrix in population persistence. Journal of Applied Ecology 43(6): 1056-1068.


- Driscoll, C. A., Y. Noboyuki, G. K. Bhar-Gal, A. L. Roca, S. Luo, D. W. McDonald and S. J. O'Brien (2009): Mithochondrial Phylogeography Illuminates the Origen of the Extinct Caspian Tiger and Its Relationship to the Amur Tiger. PLOS One 4(1): 323-329.


- Goodrich, J. M., L. L. Kerley, E. N. Smirnov, D. G. Miquelle, L. McDonald, H. B. Quigley, M. Hornocker and T. McDonald (2008): Survival rates and causes of mortality of Amur tigers on and near Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Zapovednik. Journal of Zoology 276(4): 323-329.


- Goodrich, J. M., D. G. Miquelle, E. N. Smirnov, L. L. Kerley, H. B. Quigley and M. Hornocker (2010): Spatial structure of Amur (Siberian) tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) on Sikhote-Alin Biosphere Zapovednik, Russia. Journal of Mammalogy 91(3): 737-748.


- Henry, P.,  D. Miquelle, T. Sugimoto, D.R. McCullough, A. Caccone and M.A.Russello (2009): In situ population structure and ex situ representation of the endangered Amur tiger. Molecular Ecology 18(15): 3173-3184.


- Karanth, K. U. (2003): Tiger Ecology and Conservation in the Indian Subcontinent. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 100(2&3): 169-189.


- Karanth, K. U., N. S. Kumar, N. S. Kumar, W. A. Link and J. E. Hines (2004): Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance. PNAS 101(14): 4854-4858.


- Kitchener, A. C. and A. J. Dugmore (2000): Biogeographical change in the tiger, Panthera tigris. Animal Conservation 3(2): 113-124.


- Luo, S. J., J. H. Kim, W. E. Johnson, J. vd Walt, J. Martenson, N. Yuhki, D. G. Miquelle, O. Uphyrkina, J. M. Goodrich, H. B. Quigley, R. Tilson, G. Brady, P. Martelli, V. Subramaniam, C. McDougal, S. Hean, S. H. Huang, W. Pan, U. K. Karanth, M. Sunquist, J. L. D. Smith and S. J. O'Brien (2004): Phylogeography and Genetic Ancestry of Tigers (Panthera tigris). PLoS Biology 2(12): e442.


- Luo,S. J., W. E. Johnson, J. Martenson, A. Antunes, P. Martelli, O. Uphyrkina, K. Traylor-Holzer, J. L.D. Smith, and S. J. O'Brien (2008): Subspecies Genetic Assignments of Worldwide Captive Tigers Increase Conservation Value of Captive Populations. Current Biology 18(8): 592-596.


- Miquelle, D. G., E. Smirnov, H. Quigley, M. Hornocker, I. Nikolaev and E. Matyushkin (1996): Food habits of Amur Tigers in the Sikhote-Alin Zapovednik and the Russian far East, and Implications for Conservation. Journal of Wildlife Research 1(2): 138-147.


- Seidensticker, J., S. Christie and P. Jackson (eds.) (1999): Riding the Tiger: Tiger Conservation in Human-Dominated Landscapes. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: United Kingdom.


- Tilson, R. and P. Nyhus (eds.) (2010): Tigers of the World: The Science, Politics and Conservation of Panthera tigris, 2nd ed. Academic Press. Burlington: United States of America.


·        Panthera uncia


- Bagchi, S. and C. Mishra (2006): Living with large carnivores: predation on livestock by the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Journal of Zoology, 268(3): 217-224.


- Fox, J. L., S. P. Sinha, R. S. Chundawat and P. K. Das (1991): Status of the Snow Leopard Panthera uncia in Northwest India. Biological Conservation 55(3): 283-298.


- Janečka, J. E., R. Jackson, Z. Yuquang, L. Diqiang, B. Munkhtsog, V. Buckley-Beason and W. J. Murphy (2008): Population Monitoring of snow leopards using noninvasive collection of scat samples: a pilot study. Animal Conservation, 11(1): 401-411.


- Lovari, S., R. Boesi, I. Minder, N. Mucci, E. Randi, A. Dematteis and S. B. Ale (2009): Restoring a keystone predator may endanger a prey species in a human-altered ecosystem: the return of the snow leopard to Sagarmatha National Park. Animal Conservation, 12(6): 559-570.


- McCarthy, T. M., T. K. Fuller and B. Munkhtsog (2005): Movements and activities of Snow Leopards in Southwestern Mongolia. Biological Conservation 124(4): 527-537.


- Schaller, G. B. and R. Junrang (1988): Status of the Snow Leopard Panthera uncia in Qinghai and Gansu Provinces, China. Biological Conservation 45(3): 179-194.


- Waits, L., V. Buckley-Beason, W. E. Johnson, D. Onorato and T. McCarthy (2007): A select panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for individual identification of snow leopards (Panthera uncia). Molecular Ecology Notes 7(2): 311-314.


- Wei, L., X. Wu and T. Z. Jiang (2009): The complete mithocondrial genome structure of snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Molecular Biology Reports 36(5):871-878.


- Wolf, M. and S. Ale (2009): Signs at the Top: Habitat Features Influencing Snow Leopard Uncia uncia Activity in Sagarmatha National Park, Nepal. Journal of Mammalogy 90(3):604-611.


- Zhang, F., Z. Jiang, Y. Zeng and T. McCarthy (2007): Development of primers to characterize the mitochondrial control region of the snow leopard (Uncia uncia). Molecular Ecology Notes 7(6): 1196-1198.


·        Puma concolor


- Alexander, M., T. N. Logan and P. C. Paquet (2006): Spatio-temporal co-occurrence of cougars (Felis concolor), wolves (Canis lupus) and their prey during winter: a comparison of two analytical methods. Journal of Biogeography 33(11) 2001-2012.


- Cooley, H. S., H. S. Robinson, R. B. Wielgus and C. S. Lambert (2008): Cougar Prey Selection in a White-Tailed Deer and Mule Deer Community. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(1) 99-106.


- Culver, M.; W. E. Johnson, J. Pecon-Slattery and S. J. O’Brien (2000): Genomic Ancestry of the American Puma (Puma concolor). Journal of Heredity 91(3): 186-197.


- Culver, M.; M. A. Menotti Raymond and S. J. O'Brien (2001): Patterns of size homoplasy at 10 microsatellite loci in pumas (Puma concolor). Molecular Biology and Evolution 18(6): 1151-1156.


- Donadio, E.; A. J. Novaro, S. V. Buskirk, A. Wurstten, M. S. Vitali and M. J. Monteverde (2009): Evaluating a potentially strong trophic interaction: pumas and wild camelids in protected areas of Argentina. Journal of Zoology 280(1): 33-40.


- Franklin, W. L.; W. E. Johnson, R. J. Sarno and J. A. Iriarte (1999): Ecology of the Patagonian puma Felis concolor patagonica in southern Chile. Biological Conservation 90(1): 33-40.


- Grigione, M. M.; P. Beier, R. A. Hopkins, D. Neal, W. D. Padley, C. M. Schonewald and M. L. Johnson (2002): Ecological and allometric determinants of home-range size for mountain lions (Puma concolor). Animal Conservation 5(4): 317-324.


- Hornocker, M.; S. Negri and A. Rabinowitz (eds.) (2009): Cougar: Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press. Chicago: United States of America.


- Knopff, K.; A. Knopff; A. Kortello and M. Boyce (2010): Cougar Kill Rate and Prey Composition in a Multiprey System. Journal of Wildlife Management 74(7): 1435-1447.


- Laundré, J. W. (2008): Summer predation rates on ungulate prey by a large keystone predator: how many ungulates does a large predator kill? Journal of Zoology 275(4): 341-348.


- Logan, K. A. and L. L. Sweanor (2001): Desert Puma. Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation of an Enduring Carnivore. Island Press. Washington: United States of America.


- Palmeira, F. B. L., P. G. Crawshaw, C. M. Haddad, K.M. Ferraz and L. Verdade (2008): Cattle depredation by puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) in central-west Brazil. Biological Conservation 141(1): 118-125.


- Ross, P. I. and M. G. Jalkotzy (1996): Cougar predation on moose in southwestern Alberta. Alces 32: 1-8.




Taxonomy and zoological nomenclature

·        Catalogue of Life

·        Integrated Taxonomic Information System

·        International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

·        International Comission on Zoological Nomenclature

·        Species 2000

·        The American Society of Mammalogists

·        ZooBank

·        Arkive. Images of Life on Earth



·        Carnivore Conservation Portal

·        IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group

·        Cat Genome Project

·        Panthera Foundation

·        Wildlife Conservation Society


Acinonyx jubatus

·        Cheetah Conservation Fund

·        Asiatic Cheetah Conservation


Neofelis nebulosa and Neofelis diardi

·        Clouded Leopard Information


Panthera leo

·        The Lion Research Center

·        African Lion Working Group

·        Asiatic Lion Information Centre


Panthera onca

·        Save the Jaguar WCS

·        Jaguar Conservation Network

·        Red yaguareté (el jaguar en la Argentina)

·        Yaguará. Programa de conservación de felinos


Panthera pardus

·        Persian Leopard

·        The Anatolian Leopard Foundation

·        Saving the Amur Leopard

·        The Cape Leopard Trust

·        Sri Lankan Leopard


Panthera tigris

·        The Tiger Foundation

·        Tigris Foundation

·        Save the Tiger Fund

·        Amur


Panthera uncia

·        International Snow Leopard Trust

·        The Snow Leopard Conservancy

·        Snow Leopard Network


Puma concolor

·        Mountain Lion Foundation

·        Cougar Network

·        Cougar Fund